Cerebral Palsy Symptoms /CP
腦性痲痺是指大腦的中樞神經系統 , 在發育成熟之前受到損傷或受到損傷或發生病變 . 腦性痲痺患者的腦部傷害除了會引起運動上的障礙之外 , 其他症狀主要有智力障礙 , 癲癇 , 視力缺損 , 聽力障礙 , 語言障礙 , 發育障礙 .
來自加州Loma Linda大學醫學院的第一作者Stephen Ashwal醫師在新聞稿中表示，因為腦性麻痺的孩童經常有其他疾病，如智力遲延、視力與聽覺受損、說話能力與語言失調及咀嚼與吞嚥失調，因此一開始的評估應該包括這些相關疾病的篩檢 .
胼胝體的發育不良症候群絕大多數個案的神經發展方面也不正常 , 常會合併動作與語言發展遲緩 , 智能障礙 , 癲癇症與腦性痲痺 .
- 智力障礙： 一般人都誤解腦性病患都是智能不足，但事實上並非所有的腦性麻痺病患都會有智能不足的症狀，在所有的腦性麻痺病患之中，約有75%的人會有智能不足的症狀，換句話說有四分之一的人智力正常，甚至有些還比一般人高 .
- 癲癇 ：大約有40%的腦性麻痺病人會有癲癇症狀的產生，若是沒有將癲癇控制好，癲癇會對腦部造成再次的傷害，影響以後的學習。因此癲癇的控制十分重要，有癲癇症狀時，應該遵照醫師指示服用抗癲癇藥物，以控制癲癇 .
- 視力缺損：約有25%的腦性麻痺病人會有斜視的症狀，不過隨著小孩子長大，此現象會漸漸消失。但是如果當孩子大於六個月時仍有此症狀，則應找眼科醫師加以矯正，以免小孩習慣以一隻眼看東西，造成另一隻眼弱視 .
- 聽力障礙：約有20%的腦性麻痺病人會有聽覺障礙，聽覺障礙會影響病人的語言學習 .
- 語言障礙：大約有70%~75%的腦性麻痺病患會有語言障礙，主要原因是腦傷使得口部肌肉的控制產生問題，而說話是依賴嘴唇、舌頭、與喉嚨肌肉的控制，因此口部肌肉控制有問題，說話當然也就有問題了 .
- 發育障礙：造成發育不良的原因有二：一為有些腦性麻痺病人有進食困難，因此營養吸收不足，發育較差；另一方面是因為腦性麻痺病人可能動的較少，因而肌肉較少使用，因而較不發達 .
Cerebral Palsy Symptoms /CP
Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a group of chronic conditions affecting body movement and muscle coordination. It is caused by damage to one or more specific areas of the brain usually occurring during fetal development; before, during, or shortly after birth; or during infancy. These disorders are not caused by problems in the muscles or nerves. Instead, faulty development or damage to motor areas in the brain disrupts the brain's ability to adequately control movement and posture.
¨Cerebral〃 refers to the brain and ¨palsy〃 to muscle weakness/poor control. Cerebral palsy itself is not progressive (i.e. brain damage does not get worse). However, secondary conditions, such as muscle splasticity, can develop that may get better over time, get worse, or remain the same. Cerebral palsy is not communicable. It is not a disease and should not be referred to as such. Although cerebral palsy is not ¨curable〃 in the accepted sense, training and therapy can help improve function.
Cerebral palsy is characterized by an inability to fully control motor function, particularly muscle control and coordination. Depending on which areas of the brain have been damaged, one or more of the following may occur: muscle tightness or spasticity; involuntary movement; disturbance in gait or mobility, difficulty in swallowing and problems with speech. In addition, the following may occur: abnormal sensation and perception; impairment of sight hearing or speech; seizures; and/or mental retardation. Other problems that may arise are difficulties in feeding, bladder and bowel control, problems with breathing because of postural difficulties, skin disorders because of pressure of sores and learning disabilities.
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is an umbrella-like term used to describe a group of chronic disorders that impair control of movement Cerebral palsy appears during the first few years of life. Symptoms and severity vary widely.
Early signs of CP usually appear before 18 months of age. Parents are often the first to suspect that their infant is not developing motor skills normally. Infants with CP are frequently slow to reach developmental milestones, such as learning to roll over, sit, crawl, smile, or walk. This is sometimes call developmental delay.
Some affected children have abnormal muscle tone. Decreased muscle tone is called hypotonia. A baby may seem flaccid and relaxed, even floppy. Increased muscle tone is called hypertonia, and the baby may seem stiff or rigid. In some cases, the baby has an early period of hypotonia that progresses to hypertonia after the first 2 to 3 months of life. Affected children may also have unusual posture or favor one side of their body.
Parents who are concerned about their baby's development for any reason should contact their physician, who can help distinguish normal variation in development from a developmental disorder.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke describes epilepsy as "a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally". In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. Epilepsy is a disorder with many possible causes.
According to the Epilepsy Foundation of America, epilepsy is a physical condition that occurs when there is a sudden, brief change in how the brain works. When brain cells are not working properly, a person's consciousness, movement or actions may be altered for a short time. These physical changes are called epileptic seizures. Epilepsy is therefore sometimes called a seizure disorder. Epilepsy affects people in all nations and of all races.
Some people can experience a seizure and not have epilepsy. For example, many young children have convulsions from fevers. These febrile convulsions are one type of seizure. Other types of seizures not classified as epilepsy include those caused by an imbalance of body fluids or chemicals or by alcohol or drug withdrawal. A single seizure does not mean that the person has epilepsy.
Although the symptoms listed below are not necessarily indicators of epilepsy, it is wise to consult a doctor if you or a member of your family experiences one of more of them:
- "Blackouts" or periods of confused memory.
- Episodes of staring or unexplained periods of unresponsiveness.
- Involuntary movement of arms and legs.
- "Fainting spells" with incontinence or followed by excessive fatigue.
- Odd sounds, distorted perceptions, episodic feelings of fear that cannot be explained.
Seizures can be generalized, meaning that all brain cells are involved. One type of generalized seizure consists of a convulsion with a complete loss of consciousness. Another type looks like a brief period of fixed staring.
Seizures are partial when those brain cells not working properly are limited to one part of the brain. Such partial seizures may cause periods of "automatic behavior" and altered consciousness. This is typified by purposeful- looking behavior, such as buttoning or unbuttoning a shirt. Such behavior, however, is unconscious, may be repetitive, and is usually not recalled.